Section XVI: Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Electrical Equipment; Parts…

1. This section does not cover:
(a) Transmission, conveyor or elevator belts or belting, of plastics of chapter 39, or of vulcanized rubber (heading 4010), or other
articles of a kind used in machinery or mechanical or electrical appliances or for other technical uses, of vulcanized rubber other
than hard rubber (heading 4016);
(b) Articles of leather or of composition leather (heading 4205) or of furskin (heading 4303), of a kind used in machinery or mechanical
appliances or for other technical uses;
(c) Bobbins, spools, cops, cones, cores, reels or similar supports, of any material (for example, chapter 39, 40, 44 or 48 or section
(d) Perforated cards for Jacquard or similar machines (for example, chapter 39 or 48 or section XV);
(e) Transmission or conveyor belts or belting of textile material (heading 5910) or other articles of textile material for technical uses
(heading 5911);
(f) Precious or semiprecious stones (natural, synthetic or reconstructed) of headings 7102 to 7104, or articles wholly of such stones of
heading 7116, except unmounted worked sapphires and diamonds for styli (heading 8522);
(g) Parts of general use, as defined in note 2 to section XV, of base metal (section XV), or similar goods of plastics (chapter 39);
(h) Drill pipe (heading 7304);
(ij) Endless belts of metal wire or strip (section XV);
(k) Articles of chapter 82 or 83;
(l) Articles of section XVII;
(m) Articles of chapter 90;
(n) Clocks, watches or other articles of chapter 91;
(o) Interchangeable tools of heading 8207 or brushes of a kind used as parts of machines (heading 9603); similar interchangeable
tools are to be classified according to the constituent material of their working part (for example, in chapter 40, 42, 43, 45 or 59 or
heading 6804 or 6909);
(p) Articles of chapter 95; or
(q) Typewriter or similar ribbons, whether or not on spools or in cartridges (classified according to their constituent material, or in
heading 9612 if inked or otherwise prepared for giving impressions).
2. Subject to note 1 to this section, note 1 to chapter 84 and to note 1 to chapter 85, parts of machines (not being parts of the articles of
heading 8484, 8544, 8545, 8546 or 8547) are to be classified according to the following rules:
(a) Parts which are goods included in any of the headings of chapter 84 or 85 (other than headings 8409, 8431, 8448, 8466, 8473,
8487, 8503, 8522, 8529, 8538 and 8548) are in all cases to be classified in their respective headings;
(b) Other parts, if suitable for use solely or principally with a particular kind of machine, or with a number of machines of the same
heading (including a machine of heading 8479 or 8543) are to be classified with the machines of that kind or in heading 8409,
8431, 8448, 8466, 8473, 8503, 8522, 8529 or 8538 as appropriate. However, parts which are equally suitable for use principally
with the goods of headings 8517 and 8525 to 8528 are to be classified in heading 8517;
(c) All other parts are to be classified in heading 8409, 8431, 8448, 8466, 8473, 8503, 8522, 8529 or 8538 as appropriate or, failing
that, in heading 8487 or 8548.
Notes (con.)
3. Unless the context otherwise requires, composite machines consisting of two or more machines fitted together to form a whole and other
machines designed for the purpose of performing two or more complementary or alternative functions are to be classified as if consisting
only of that component or as being that machine which performs the principal function.
4. Where a machine (including a combination of machines) consists of individual components (whether separate or interconnected by
piping, by transmission devices, by electric cables or by other devices) intended to contribute together to a clearly defined function
covered by one of the headings in chapter 84 or chapter 85, then the whole falls to be classified in the heading appropriate to that
5. For the purposes of these notes, the expression “machine” means any machine, machinery, plant, equipment, apparatus or appliance
cited in the headings of chapter 84 or 85.
Additional U.S. Note
1. For the purposes of this section, the term “printed circuit assembly” means goods consisting of one or more printed circuits of heading
8534 with one or more active elements assembled thereon, with or without passive elements. For the purposes of this note, “active
elements” means diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices, whether or not photosensitive, of heading 8541, and integrated
circuits of heading 8542.
Statistical Note
1. Provisions for semiconductor manufacturing and testing machines and apparatus cover products for the growth and processing of
semiconductor materials, such as silicon and gallium arsenide, the processing of such materials into semiconductor devices and the
testing of such devices (in general the testing equipment, as well as some of the processing equipment, is classified in chapter 90).
More specifically the goods include the following:
(a) Wafer manufacturing equipment:
(i) Crystal growers & pullers – used to produce extremely pure monocrystalline semiconductor boules from which wafers can be
sliced. Most common methods employed in these crystal growers and pullers are the Czochralski and float zone methods.
(ii) Wafer preparation equipment:
(A) Crystal grinders – used to grind the crystal boule to precise diameter required for wafers and to grind the flats on the
boule to indicate the conductivity type and resistivity of the crystal.
(B) Wafer slicing saws – used to slice wafers from a boule of monocrystalline semiconductor material.
(C) Wafer grinders, lappers and polishers – used to prepare the semiconductor wafer for the fabrication process. This
involves bringing the wafer within dimensional tolerances. Especially critical is the flatness of its surface.
(b) Mask fabrication and repair equipment –
(i) Fabrication equipment – used to transfer design patterns to a mask or reticle, this equipment generally utilizes optical,
electron beam or X-rays to write circuit patterns on photoresist coated substrates. After development, these substrates
become the mask or reticle for wafer fabrication.
(ii) Repair equipment – this equipment generally utilizes focused ion beams or laser beams. They are used directly on the mask
or reticle to remove chrome.
(c) Wafer fabrication equipment:
(i) Film formation equipment – used to apply or produce various films on the surface of the wafer during the fabrication process.
These films serve as conductors, insulators and semiconductors on the finished device. They may include oxides and
nitrides of the substrate surface, metals, and epitaxial layers. The processes and equipments listed below are not necessarily
limited to the generation of a particular type of film.
(A) Oxidation furnaces – used to form a “film” of oxide on the wafer. The oxide is formed by the chemical reaction of the
top molecular layers of the wafer with the applied oxygen or steam under heat.
(B) Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) equipment – used to deposit various types of films which are obtained by combining
the appropriate gases in a reactant chamber at elevated temperatures. This constitutes a thermochemical vapor-phase
reaction. Operations may take place at atmospheric or low pressure (LPCVD) and may use plasma enhancement
Statistical Note (con.)
(C) Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) equipment – used to deposit various types of films which are obtained by vaporizing a
(1) Evaporation equipment – in which the film is generated by heating the source material.
(2) Sputtering equipment – in which the film is generated by bombarding the source material (target) with ions.
(D) Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) equipment – used to grow epitaxial layers on a heated monocrystalline substrate in an
ultrahigh vacuum using beams of molecules. The process is similar to PVD.
(ii) Doping equipment – which is used to introduce dopants into the wafer surface in order to modify the conductivity or other
characteristics of a semiconductor layer:
(A) Thermal diffusion equipment – in which the dopants introduced into the surface of the wafer by the application of gases
under high temperatures.
(B) Ion Implantation – in which the dopants are “driven” into the crystal lattice structure of the surface of the wafer in the
form a beam of accelerated ions.
(C) Annealing furnaces – which are used to repair the crystal lattice structures of the wafer damaged by ion implantation.
(iii) Etching and stripping equipment – used for etching or cleaning surfaces of the wafers.
(A) Wet etching equipment – in which chemical etching materials are applied by spraying or immersion. Spray etchers
provide more uniform results than bath etchers, since they perform the operation on one wafer at a time.
(B) Dry plasma etching – in which etching materials are presented as gases within a plasma energy field, providing an
anisotropic etch profile.
(C) Ion beam milling equipment – in which ionized gas atoms are accelerated toward the wafer surface. The impact results
in the top layer being physically removed from the surface.
(D) Strippers or ashers – using techniques similar to etching this apparatus removes the spent photoresist from the surface
of the wafer after it has served its purpose as a “stencil”. This equipment is also used for removal of nitrides, oxides,
and polysilicon, with an isotropic etch profile.
(iv) Lithography equipment – used to transfer the circuit designs to the photoresist coated surface of the semiconductor wafer.
(A) Equipment for coating wafers with photoresist – these include the photoresist spinners which are used to apply liquid
photoresist evenly over the surface of the wafer.
(B) Equipment for exposing the photoresist coated wafer with the circuit design (or a part thereof):
(1) Using a mask or reticle and exposing the photoresist to light (generally ultraviolet) or, in some instances, X-rays:
(a) Contact printers – where the mask or reticle is in contact with the wafer during exposure.
(b) Proximity aligners – similar to contact aligners except actual contact does not take place between the mask
or reticle and the wafer.
(c) Scanning aligners – which use projection techniques to expose a continuously moving slit across the mask
and wafer.
(d) Step and repeat aligners – which use projection techniques to expose the wafer a portion at a time.
Exposure can be by reduction from the mask to the wafer or 1:1. Enhancements include the use of an
excimer laser.
(2) Direct write on wafer equipment – these apparatus operate with no mask or reticle. They use a computer
controlled “writing beam” (such as an electron beam (E-beam), ion beam or laser) to “draw” the circuit design
directly on the photoresist coated wafer.
(C) Equipment for developing exposed wafers – these include chemical baths similar to those used in photographic
laboratory applications
Statistical Note (con.)
(d) Assembly equipment
(i) Dicing equipment – these include sawing machines and scribing machines (including laser scribers) and dicing accessories
such as wafer breaking equipment.
(ii) Die bonding equipment – which installs the die to the package by soldering or gluing
(iii) Wire bonding equipment – used for attaching thin wires or tapes (usually of gold, aluminum or copper) from the die bonding
pads to the corresponding pads on the package.
(iv) Packaging equipment – which are used to encapsulate or package a semiconductor device. They include sealing furnaces,
lid welders, plastic encapsulation presses, lead trim and form equipment, package deflashers, and tin dip and solder plate
(e) Testing and inspection equipment
(i) Optical inspection equipment – These include equipment that “examines” portions of the wafer surface and compares them
either to a standard pattern or to other portions of the wafer surface.
(ii) Electrical testing equipment – These include computer controlled systems that test the functions and electrical specifications
of semiconductor devices through the application and detection of electrical signals or patterns. Testing is performed on both
unencapsulated dice and packaged integrated circuits.


8401 nuclear reactors, fuel elem (n-l): mach isotope sep
8402 steam etc generating boilers nesoi, sup w boilers
8403 central heat boilers nesoi, and parts
8404 auxiliary plant used with boilers, condensers, pts
8405 producer gas, acetylene gas etc generators & parts
8406 steam turbines & other vapor turbines, parts
8407 spark-ignition recip or rotary int comb piston engine
8408 compression-ignition internal comb piston engines
8409 parts for engines of heading 8407 or 8408
8410 hydraulic turbines, water wheels & regulators, pts
8411 turbojets, turbopropellers & other gas turbines, pts
8412 engines and motors nesoi, and parts thereof
8413 pumps for liquids, liquid elevators, parts thereof
8414 air or vacuum pumps, compr & fans, hoods & fans, pts
8415 air conditioning machines (temp & hum change), pts
8416 furnace burners, mechanical stokers etc, parts
8417 industrial or lab furnaces & ovens, nonelect, pts
8418 refrigerators, freezers etc, heat pumps nesoi, pts
8419 machinery etc for temp change treat mat, w heat, pt
8420 calendering machines etc nesoi & cylinders, parts
8421 centrifuges, filter etc mach for liquid or gases, pts
8422 machines, dishwash, clean etc cont & fill, pak etc
8423 weighing machines & weighing machine weights, pts
8424 mech appl to disperse liq etc, sand etc blast mach
8425 pulley tackle & hoists (exc skip), winch etc, jaks
8426 derricks, cranes, mobile lifting frames etc
8427 fork-lift trucks, other works trucks with lifts etc.
8428 lifting, handling, loading & unload machines nesoi
8429 self-propelled bulldozers, graders, scrapers etc
8430 mach nesoi, moving, grad etc, pile-dr, snowplow etc
8431 parts for machinery of headings 8425 to 8430
8432 agricult etc mach for soil etc, lawn rollers, pts
8433 harvest etc machines, cleaning eggs etc nesoi, pts
8434 milking machines & dairy machinery & parts
8435 presses etc for wine, cider, fruit juice etc, pts
8436 agri etc & poultry etc equip, inc incubators, pts
8437 mach for cleaning seed etc & work cereal etc, pts
8438 mach nesoi, ind prep of food or drink etc, parts
8439 mach for making pulp & making/finishing paper, pts
8440 bookbinding machinery, incl book-sewing, parts
8441 mach for making up pulp & paper, inc cutters, pts
8442 mach etc nesoi for typeset, making pr plates etc
8443 printing machinery, machines ancil to printing, pt
8444 machines extruding, drawing etc manmade textiles
8445 machines for preparing textile fibers & yarns
8446 weaving machines (looms)
8447 machines, knitting, stitch-bond, lace, net etc.
8448 auxiliary machinery for use with textile machines
8449 mach for manuf or finish nonwovens, hat blocks, parts
8450 washing machines, household- or laundry-type, pts
8451 machinery (not laundry) for cleaning, drying etc
8452 sewing machines (not book-sew), cover etc, needles
8453 machinery for work leather etc & footwear etc, pts
8454 converters, ladles, ingot molds & casting mach, pt
8455 metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor, parts
8456 machine tools for material removal by laser etc
8457 machining centers, unit const mach etc work metal
8458 lathes for removing metal
8459 machine tools for drilling, boring, milling etc
8460 machine tools for honing or finishing metal etc
8461 machine tools for shaping, slotting, gear cut etc
8462 machine tools for forging, bending, stamping etc
8463 machine tools for working metal, nesoi
8464 machine tools for working stone, etc & glass
8465 machine tools for working wood, cork, bone etc
8466 parts etc for machine tools of head 8456 to 8465
8467 tools for working in the hand, pneumatic etc, pts
8468 machines, solder etc, gas surf temper machines, pt
8469 typewriters & word processing machines
8470 calculating & account machines, cash registers etc
8471 automatic data process machines, magn reader, etc. computer hardware
8472 office machines nesoi (hectogpaph, addressing etc)
8473 parts etc for typewriters & other office machines computer accessories
8474 machinery for sorting screening etc minerals, pts
8475 machines for assembling elec tubes etc & glass mfr, pt
8476 automatic goods-vending machines, parts
8477 machinery for working rubber & plastic etc nesoi, pt
8478 machinery for tobacco preparation nesoi, parts
8479 machines etc having individual functions nesoi, pt
8480 molding boxes for metal foundry, mold bases etc
8481 taps, cocks, valves etc for pipes, tanks etc, pts
8482 ball or roller bearings and parts
8483 transmission shafts, bearings, gears etc, parts
8484 gaskets & similar joints of metal sheeting
8485 machinery pts. no elect connectors etc nesoi


8501 electric motors and generators (no sets)
8502 electric generating sets and rotary converters
8503 parts of electric motors, generators & sets
8504 electric transform, static converters & induct, pt
8505 electromagnets, permanent magnets etc & parts
8506 primary cells & batteries, parts
8507 electric storage batteries, incl separators, parts
8508 electromechanical tools, working in hand, parts
8509 electromech domestic appliances, parts
8510 electric shavers & hair clippers, parts
8511 electric ignition etc equip, generators, parts
8512 electric light etc equip, windshield wipers etc, parts
8513 portable elec lamps function by own energy source
8514 industrial or lab elec furnaces etc, parts
8515 electric, laser or other light or photon beam etc
8516 elec water, space & soil heaters, hair etc dry, pt
8517 elec apparatus for line telephony, telephone sets, pts
8518 microphones, loudspeakers, sound amplifier etc, pt
8519 turntables, record & cassette players etc.
8520 magnetic tape & other sound recorders
8521 video recording or reproducing apparatus
8522 parts & access of record play, mag tape record etc
8523 prepared unrecorded media (no film) for sound etc.
8524 records, tapes & other recorded sound media etc computer software
8525 trans apparatus for radiotelephony etc, tv cameras cordless telephones
8526 radar apparatus, radio navig aid & remote cont app
8527 reception apparatus for radiotelephony etc
8528 television receivers (incl monitors & proj receivers)
8529 parts for television, radio and radar apparatus
8530 electric signal, safety or traffic control equip
8531 electric sound or visual signaling apparatus, pts
8532 electric capacitors, fixed, variable or adjustable (preset)
8533 electrical resistors except heating resistors, pts
8534 printed circuits
8535 electrical apparatus for switching etc, ov 1000v
8536 electrical apparatus for switching etc, n/ov 1000v
8537 boards, panels etc with elec switch appar etc.
8538 parts for elec appar etc of head 8535, 8536 & 8537
8539 electric filament or discharge lamps, parts
8540 thermionic, cold cathode or photocathode tubes, pt
8541 semiconductor devices, light-emit diodes etc, pts
8542 electronic integrated circuits & microassembl, pts
8543 electrical mach etc, with ind functions nesoi, pts
8544 insulated wire, cable etc, opt sheath fib cables
8545 carbon electrodes & brushes, lamp carbons etc
8546 electrical insulators of any material
8547 insulating fittings for assembly nesoi
8548 electrical parts of machinery nesoi